What is APA Referencing Style?

APA or American Psychological Association referencing style is one of the popular and worldwide utilized referencing styles. It is also called an author-date style. Recently, the 6th edition of APA referencing style is utilized across the world. APA referencing style has different kinds of usage along with its in-citation procedure. In APA style references are always placed in a hanging order. All formats, reference guides, and rules of in-citation are discussed here.

APA Referencing Guide:

For a single author based

APA referencing is done through providing the last name of Author, initials of the first name of Author. (Publication year). Name of the book or journal, page numbers


Durdin, J. (1991). They Became Nurses: A History of Nursing in South Australia, 1836-1980 (pp. 139-42). Sydney: Allen & Unwin.

For two authors based referencing

The last name of the authors with initials of their first name should be separated by Ampersand but not "and". Year of publication will be written within the bracket. Rest system is the same as used for single authorship based APA referencing style.


Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2009). International differences in nursing research, 2005–2006. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 41(1), 44-53.

For APA in-text referencing of three to seven authors

All the names are arranged in a list with their last names and here first initials are separated with commas. Ampersand signs are used here during writing the final name of the writer. Year of publication should be bracketed. Name of the book or journal is written in Italics in APA referencing style. Page numbers are situated at the end of references in APA referencing.

For referencing of more than seven authors

In this time, initial six authors names are written normally but after the sixth writer's name ellipses are used and after ellipses, last authors name is provided. In this case, no ampersand should be used before the last author's name. Year of publication is written here within the bracket. Book or journal name should be placed with italics in such APA referencing.


Lenthall, S., Wakerman, J., Opie, T., Dunn, S., MacLeod, M., Dollard, M., ... & Knight, S. (2011). Nursing workforce in very remote Australia, characteristics and key issues. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 19(1), 32-37.

Online source referencing style:

Here the last name of authors and initial of the first name should be connected by providing comma. Name of the e-book or web-based journal should be written in Italics. Retrieved day, month and years should be in numerals. URL will be placed at the end.


Hawkings, T. (2015). Professor Hawking’s website. Retrieved 6 May 2016, from hawking.org.uk

In APA referencing style, Digital Object Identifier providing is highly recommended to make the long-term link of the online pages.

APA in-text Referencing Procedure:

For a single author, the surname of author and publication year should be placed within a bracket when referencing is placed at the end of a sentence in APA in-text referencing style. If this in-text referencing is used during the beginning of a sentence arrangement will be

The surname of Author, (publication year)

For two to three authors all the surnames will be written with commas and publication year within a bracket at the end of the sentence. If we want to put this referencing at the beginning of the sentence, the pattern will be the same as single author APA in-text referencing.

For making references of more than three authors, in APA in-text citation procedure it needs the surname of the first author with et al in italics and year of publication. The comma will be placed within these two.

How to Present APA Referencing List:

To provide APA referencing list at the end of the assignment, there are some rules which are listed below.

  • All of the references will be entered with a hanging indent. In this system, every line after completion of the first line should be moved in the right in APA referencing list.
  • After assembling all the references these should be arranged in Alphabetical manner starting from the name of the first author.
  • APA referencing list should be double spaced

APA Referencing Monash:

In the history of the referencing procedure, there are two common methods. Normally in APA referencing style, Authors name and publication years are provided within the essay. At the end of the essay, all the references are listed. This style is called APA referencing Monash.

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