What is the Harvard Referencing Style?
It is one of the most utilized referencing styles where different elements are used at a time. In Harvard referencing style components are authors name, year, journal or book name, page numbers. It is another popular author-date based referencing style. The sources of different information are cited by the Harvard referencing style by providing the author's name, year of publication, and page numbers. All of the rules are here provided below.
Format of Harvard Referencing style is as below:
Last name of the author, first initial. (Publication year). Title of book or journal in Italics. Edition number. Name of the city where a book or journal was published. Name of the publisher. Pages number.
In Harvard referencing style, Edition number is needed when book or journal is not the first edition. The page number is also required here only if direct quotations are used within an assignment.
- Case of single authorship has the following format:
- For two authors:
- For three authors:
Author surname, first initial, year within the bracket. Name of the journal in Italics. Publishing city: Name of publisher.
It is the same as single author rule, but only the names of two authors will be related to an Ampersand.
It is also the same as two author based references.
Harvard based referencing style for journals:
Standard format for Harvard referencing of a journal contains Last name, First initial. The Year of publication will be within the bracket. Title of the article. The volume of the item. Page numbers of the journal. In the case of online journals, only Available URLs, accessing day, month, and years are included.
Harvard in-text referencing:
In the case of single authors, Harvard in-text referencing needs the only surname of the Author and Year of publication. Both of them will be connected by a comma and should be placed at the end of a sentence. During in-texting, a reference at the beginning of a sentence, then the Author's name and comma, will be out of the bracket.Example: (Ross, 2014)
Harvard in-text referencing in the case of two authors will be as same as a single author, but Ampersands will connect surnames.Example: (Chowdhury and Mahes, 2012)
In-text referencing in Harvard referencing style having three authors will contain all the surnames having comma within these.
In-text referencing in Harvard referencing style for more than three authors needs et al. in Italics after the last Author's surname with publication year.
UTS Harvard Referencing
In these kinds of book referencing style author's family name is followed by an initial title. The rest portion becomes the same as General Harvard referencing style.
Harvard Referencing Example
- One author example:
- Double author example:
- Triple author example:
- More than three authors related example:
Borooah, V.K., 1999. The supply of hotel rooms in Queensland, Australia. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(4), pp.985-1003.
Scanlan, L., & McPHAIL, J. (2000). Forming service relationships with hotel business travelers: The critical attributes to improve retention. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 24(4), 491-513.
Wei, S., Ruys, H., and Muller, T.E., 1999. A gap analysis of perceptions of hotel attributes by marketing managers and older people in Australia. Journal of Marketing Practice: Applied Marketing Science, 5(6/7/8), pp.200-212.
Kamat, P., Seebok, N., Justin, T., and Fryberg, F. (2015). Discovering the Universe. Boston: Cengage Learning, pp. 455-457.
Monash Harvard Referencing
The Monash university-based Harvard referencing pattern needs to provide Harvard references at the end of the essay. This time, page number or page range is required if anything is paraphrased or directly quoted for information collection.
UWA Harvard Referencing
The University of Western Australia, there is the system for providing references in academic writing along with a reference list at the end of the report. As it is an Author-date referencing system, so during in-text citation UWA Referencing style needs Authors surname, Year of publication, page number within a bracket at the end of a sentence.Example: (Holt 1997, p. 27)
Harvard Referencing online
The Harvard referencing style for online articles, journals, and different e-books or web pages needs the following format:
Last name, First Initial, (Year published).Title. Edition.City. [Format] City: Publisher Pages.Available at: [Accessed Day, Month, Year]
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